The policy and government crackdowns against reform led activists like Nelson Mandela to found violent militant groups which saw the overthrow Apartheid South Africa. Meanwhile, all of southern Africa was at war. The soft-fascist Portuguese Empire was losing Mozambique and Angola and Whites in Rhodesia declared independence from the United Kingdom and fought against Black militants for control of what would become Zimbabwe. Add in civil conflicts between Communists and pro-Western factions and a trifecta of civil war, decolonization, and Cold War killings was formed.
|Map by Nieves Lopez Izquierdo, Mapping the World, 2010|