There have been multiple attempts in the twentieth century to establish an independent Kurdistan in different countries within the Kurdistan realm between Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and the former Soviet Union. Despite initial successes in controlling ungoverned spaces and establishing the framework of a state, each effort was eliminated by the home state.
1922-24 Kingdom of Kurdistan - Iraq
1923-30 Red Kurdistan - USSR, Azerbaijan (currently within the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic), dissolved into Azerbaijan due to Soviet ethnic geopolitics.
1927-30 Republic of Ararat - Turkey
1946-47 Republic of Kurdistan - Iran
1992 Lachin Kurdish Republic - Azerbaijan (currently within the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic)
The cycle of failed states came somewhat to end with Iraqi Kurdistan gaining de facto independence under the United States' no-fly zone in 1991. Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 ensured de facto independence for Iraqi Kurdistan continued. Since then elections have been held multiple times, infrastructure has been built, and an unique identity has formed in the region. The Iraqi Kurdish government known as the Kurdistan Regional Government even worked with the Turkish military in coordinating efforts against the Kurdistan Workers Party militias.
Now a new Kurdish state may be in formation. The Kurdish Democratic Union Party, pro-Syrian Arab Republic and aligned with the terrorist Kurdistan Workers Party, and the pro-rebel Kurdistan National Council are jointly taking control of northeast Syria. This area is mostly Kurdish and has been abanonded by the Syrian Arab Republic and there is no Free Syrian Army presence.
The geography blog Political Geography Now created a zone of control map of Syria which shows places under control by the nascent Kurdish proto-government.
|Political Geography Now's map of Syria. Blue dots are under Kurdish control.|
|Kurdish flags over a school. Photo from Transnational Middle-East Observer|