Meterology can be viewed as a subset of geography. Yet the most common meteorological phenomenon, clouds, are sadly not understood by many geographers and want-to-be geographers (besides low, dark clouds equals rain).
Fortunately NASA and NOAA have a nice two page chart (PDF) on the various types clouds. Once you get the types of clouds down Quiet Journey has a quick guide on how to predict the weather by reading the clouds. Try reading the clouds for a few days and see how good you can be with weather predictions.