Armenia and Azerbaijan
One look at the complex series of exclaves and enclaves in the Caucasus may lead one to ask: how does this work? The answer is simple: it doesn't. Years of ethnic tension, Soviet oppression, and population mass-exiles and resettlements resulted in the bloody Nagorno-Karabakh War from 1988 to 1994. While the war is most well known for the de facto independence of Nagorno-Karabakh and occupation of the part of Azeribajian between the two Armenian states, there were other long changes as well. The little Armenian enclave of Artsvashen fell into Azeri control while Azeribajian lost all three of enclaves to the Armenians. Ethnic cleansing was conducted to ensure control.
Armenian territory in Azerbaijan (Azerbaijian occupied)
Azerbaijani territory in Armenia (Armenian occupied)
Azerbaijani territory between Armenia, Turkey, and Iran
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
De Facto Armenian territory in Azerbaijan
The enclaves are smaller pawns with Nagorno-Karabakh's status diplomatic war between Armenia and Azerbaijan. However, most likely these smaller regions, except for undisputed Nakchivan Autonomous Republic, will go from de facto occupied to de jure annexed in any peace deal.
Unlike the Caucasus, Central Asia's geopolitical cartographic Stalinist game has not lead to overt violence, just pointless moves by governments over small tracts of land. Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan were given a landscape of confusion that only the mad mind of Stalin that could come up with.
Coming Anarchy's map of Central Asian exclaves
Uzbek territory in Kyrgyzstan
Tajik territory in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz territory inside Uzbekistan
Tajik territory in Uzbekistan
These exclaves and enclaves will most likely will not switch control. Lack of any real ethnic complaints combined with limited resources to fight over and Russian oversight will ensure violence will not appear any time soon.